pantothenic acid deficiency

Any mention in this publication of a specific product or service, or recommendation from an organization or professional society, does not represent an endorsement by ODS of that product, service, or expert advice. Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Have a question? Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2014:351-7. Microbiologic growth assays, animal bioassays, and radioimmunoassays can be used to measure pantothenic concentrations in blood, urine, and tissue, but urinary concentrations are the most reliable indicators because of their close relationship with dietary intake [1,4]. Uses of Pantothenic Acid: This vitamin is used to prevent or treat pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) deficiency. Food and Nutrition Board. [, Chawla J, Kvarnberg D. Hydrosoluble vitamins. This fact sheet by the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) provides information that should not take the place of medical advice. Includes a variety of vegetables, fruits, whole grains, fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products, and oils. 2nd ed. [. A large number of PANK2 mutations reduce the activity of pantothenate kinase 2, potentially decreasing the conversion of pantothenic acid to CoA and thus reducing CoA levels [2]. A double-blind trial in China randomly assigned 216 adults with hypertriglyceridemia (204–576 mg/dl) to supplementation with 400 U/day CoA or 600 mg/day pantethine [23]. New Brunswick nutrition survey; 1997. The only individuals known to have developed pantothenic acid deficiency were fed diets containing virtually no pantothenic acid or were taking a pantothenic acid metabolic antagonist [3]. World War II prisoners in the Philippines, Burma, and Japan experienced numbness and painful burning and tingling in their feet; these symptoms were relieved specifically by pantothenic acid supplementation (4). A deficiency in pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) is rare. [, Horvath Z, Vecsei L. Current medical aspects of pantethine. No studies have compared the relative bioavailability of pantothenic acid from these different forms. In fact, according to Oregon State University, it has only been found in those with severe malnutrition. Join the ODS Email List. Deficiency. about your interest in, questions about, or use of dietary supplements and what may be best for your overall health. Pantothenic acid is essential to your body’s ability to break fats down into fatty … A few additional clinical trials have assessed pantethine’s effects on lipid levels since the publication of the 2005 review. Ask ODS Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 1998. J Clin Invest 1959;38:1421-5. Washington, DC: Wiley-Blackwell; 2012:375-90. Chen YQ, Zhao SP, Zhao YH. However, all attempts to produce hypertension experimentally by … In: Erdman JW, Macdonald IA, Zeisel SH, eds. The corresponding declines in total cholesterol were 8.7% and 15.1%, and for low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were 10.4% and 20.1%. Limits saturated and trans fats, added sugars, and sodium. Pantothenic acid is found in two enzymes, coenzyme A (CoA) and acyl carrier protein (ACP), which are involved in many … It is also added to some foods, including some breakfast cereals and beverages (such as energy drinks). Pantothenic acid, also called vitamin B5, is one of eight water-soluble B vitamins. [. Clinical studies are limited. Pantothenic acid deficiency is very rare in the United States. Guidance for Industry: Kelly GS. Consequently, the FNB established AIs for all ages based on usual pantothenic acid intakes in healthy populations [3]. The DV for pantothenic acid on the new Nutrition Facts and Supplement Facts labels and used for the values in Table 2 is 5 mg for adults and children age 4 years and older [9]. Efficacy and tolerability of coenzyme A vs pantethine for the treatment of patients with hyperlipidemia: A randomized, double-blind, multicenter study. Excretion of less than 1 mg pantothenic acid per day suggests deficiency [1,6]. McRae MP. However, a typical mixed diet in the United States provides an estimated daily intake of about 6 mg, suggesting that most people in the United States consume adequate amounts [14]. Pantothenic acid deficiency has been produced experimentally in calves (Johnson et al., 1947; Sheppard and Johnson, 1957; Roy, 1980). 11th ed. [, Hodges RE, Ohlson MA, Bean WB. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov Pantothenic acid deficiency is very rare in the United States. Embryonic mortality in pantothenic acid deficiency occurs usually during the last few days of incubation. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov Institute of Medicine. ... Foods in nutrient-dense forms contain essential vitamins and minerals and also dietary fiber and other naturally occurring substances that may have positive health effects. Vegetables such as mushrooms (especially shiitakes), avocados, potatoes, and broccoli. A 2005 review included 28 small clinical trials (average sample size of 22 participants) that examined the effect of pantethine supplements (median daily dose of 900 mg for an average of 12.7 weeks) on serum lipid levels in a total of 646 adults with hyperlipidemia [22]. Treatment focuses primarily on reducing symptoms [19]. Pantothenic acid deficiency in man. Vasc Health Risk Manag 2014;10:89-100. Table 1 lists the current AIs for pantothenic acid [3]. Join the ODS Email List. Nutrition Research 2005;25:319-33. Two randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled studies by the same research group in a total of 152 adults with low to moderate cardiovascular disease risk found that 600 mg/day pantethine for 8 weeks followed by 900 mg/day for 8 weeks plus a therapeutic lifestyle change diet resulted in small but significant reductions in total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and non-HDL cholesterol compared with placebo after 16 weeks [21,24]. Am J Clin Nutr 1981;34:1328-37. People with pantothenic acid deficiency have polyneuropathy, among other symptoms. If the body can't use the entire … Pantothenic acid. Pantothenic acid is needed for the synthesis of coenzyme A and acyl carrier protein in mammalian cells and thus is important in the metabolism of carbohydrate, fat, and, to a lesser extent, protein. *DV = Daily Value. CoA is essential for fatty acid synthesis and degradation, transfer of acetyl and acyl groups, and a multitude of other anabolic and catabolic processes [3,4]. In some cases, fortified foods and dietary supplements may be useful in providing one or more nutrients that otherwise may be consumed in less-than-recommended amounts.". Food Labeling: Revision of the Nutrition and Supplement Facts Labels and Serving Sizes of Foods That Can Reasonably Be Consumed at One Eating Occasion, Breakfast cereals, fortified with 100% of the DV, Chicken, breast meat, skinless, roasted, 3 ounces, Mushrooms, white, stir fried, ½ cup sliced, Potatoes, russet, flesh and skin, baked, 1 medium, Greek yogurt, vanilla, nonfat, 5.3-ounce container, Ground beef, 85% lean meat, broiled, 3 ounces, Oats, regular and quick, cooked with water, ½ cup. When it does occur, it may cause symptoms including fatigue, insomnia, depression, irritability, stomach upset, burning feet and upper respiratory … We encourage you to talk to your healthcare providers (doctor, registered dietitian, pharmacist, etc.) Pantothenic acid is available in dietary supplements containing only pantothenic acid, in combination with other B-complex vitamins, and in some multivitamin/multimineral products [11]. Pantothenic acid (also known as vitamin B5) is an essential nutrient that is naturally present in some foods, added to others, and available as a dietary supplement. For example, a 1996–1997 study in New Brunswick, Canada, found average daily pantothenic acid intakes of 4.0 mg in women and 5.5 mg in men [15]. A deficiency of B5 is very uncommon. It’s also being studied to see if it raises levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL or “good”) cholesterol. Pantethine, a derivative of vitamin B5, favorably alters total, LDL and non-HDL cholesterol in low to moderate cardiovascular risk subjects eligible for statin therapy: a triple-blinded placebo and diet-controlled investigation. Side effects can also include irritability, insomnia, vomiting, depression, stomach pains, burning feet and upper respiratory infections, according to the University of Maryland Medical Center. Foods providing 20% or more of the DV are considered to be high sources of a nutrient, but foods providing lower percentages of the DV also contribute to a healthful diet. For more details, see our health professional fact sheet on Pantothenic Acid. DRI is the general term for a set of reference values used for planning and assessing nutrient intakes of healthy people. The most characteristic pantothenic acid deficiency sign in the calf is scaly dermatitis ar… The manifestations of PKAN can include dystonia (contractions of opposing groups of muscles), spasticity, and pigmentary retinopathy [2,4,18]. On average, the supplements were associated with triglyceride declines of 14.2% at 1 month and 32.9% at 4 months. All B vitamins help your body to convert carbohydrates into glucose, … Whether pantothenate supplementation is beneficial in PKAN is not known, but some anecdotal reports indicate that supplements can reduce symptoms in some patients with atypical PKAN [20]. In: Coates PM, Betz JM, Blackman MR, et al., eds. Vitamin B5 deficiency is rare, but may include symptoms such as fatigue, insomnia, … Pantothenate Kinase-Associated Neurodegeneration. Where can I find out more about pantothenic acid? Because of pantothenic acid’s role in triglyceride synthesis and lipoprotein metabolism, experts have hypothesized that pantothenic acid supplementation might reduce lipid levels in patients with hyperlipidemia [21]. Without pantothenic acid, the … about your interest in, questions about, or use of dietary supplements and what may be best for your overall health. [, Rumberger JA, Napolitano J, Azumano I, et al. Diagnosis of pantothenic acid deficiency is aided by a serum … Human pantothenic acid deficiency produced by omega-methyl pantothenic acid. Pantothenic acid is not known to have any clinically relevant interactions with medications. Some supplements contain pantethine (a dimeric form of pantetheine) or more commonly, calcium pantothenate [4,11-13]. Encyclopedia of Dietary Supplements. In: Adam MP, Ardinger HH, Pagon RA, et al., eds. Symptoms of deficiency … Gregory A, Hayflick SJ. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. Intake recommendations for pantothenic acid and other nutrients are provided in the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) developed by the Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) at the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine [3]. Adequate Intake (AI): Intake at this level is assumed to ensure nutritional adequacy; established when evidence is insufficient to develop an RDA. You can get recommended amounts of pantothenic acid by eating a variety of foods, including the following: Pantothenic acid is available in dietary supplements containing only pantothenic acid, in B-complex dietary supplements, and in some multivitamin/multimineral supplements. Pantothenic acid deficiency has rarely been identified in humans except in conjunction with deficiency of other B complex vitamins. Some intake information is available from other Western populations. Some individuals taking large doses of pantothenic acid supplements (e.g., 10 g/day) develop mild diarrhea and gastrointestinal distress, but the mechanism for this effect is not known [1,25]. Present Knowledge in Nutrition. In: Ross AC, Caballero B, Cousins RJ, et al., eds. What is pantothenic acid and what does it do? People should get most of their nutrients from food, according to the federal government’s Dietary Guidelines for Americans. The results of these studies so far are promising, but more research is needed to understand the effects of pantethine dietary supplements taken alone or combined with a heart-healthy diet. Naturally occurring pantothenic acid deficiency in humans is very rare and has been observed only in cases of severe malnutrition. Triglyceride levels dropped by a significant 16.5% with pantethine compared with baseline after 8 weeks. In some cases, fortified foods and dietary supplements may provide nutrients that people otherwise might consume in less-than-recommended amounts. Additional studies are needed to determine whether pantethine supplementation has a beneficial effect on hyperlipidemia independently of, and together with, eating a heart-healthy diet. Follow the links to read common uses, side effects, dosage details … Hence, the effect of hormonal factors in this disease entity becomes secondary to that of the availability of pantothenic acid. Handb Clin Neurol 2014;120:891-914. Most people in the United States get enough pantothenic acid. Deficiency of pantothenic acid causes several neurological, metabolic, gastrointestinal and reproductive symptoms. Kurian MA, Hayflick SJ. Even larger amounts (up to 10 grams) … Few data on pantothenic acid intakes in the United States are available. Metabolizes Food into Energy. 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